Hello Guys, today I’m going to teach you about Globe: Latitude and Longitude. it’s a very interesting topic, as we are talking about.
Globe: Latitude and Longitude
Table of Content
Our Earth is not spherical. It is slightly flattened at the northern and southern poles and slightly embossed in the center. Can you think of what it looks like?
Globes can be of different sizes and types – large globes, which cannot be easily moved from one place to another.
Small pockets such as globes and balloons such as globes can be filled with air and can be easily carried from one place to another. The globes are not static. It can be rotated like a potter’s wheel.
Countries, continents, and oceans are shown in their correct shape on the globe. It is difficult to describe the position of a point on an earth-like area.
Now the question arises that how can the position of a place be told on it? For this, we need to reference some points and lines.
You will see that a needle lies in a bent state in the globe, which is called the axis.
The two points on the globe through which the needle passes are the North and South poles. The globe can be rotated around this needle-like the earth from west to east.
But remember there is a difference between these two. There is really no such needle on earth. It revolves around its axis, which is an imaginary line.
Another alternate line also divides the globe into two equal parts.
It is called the equinox. The northern half of the Earth is called the Northern Hemisphere and the southern half is called the Southern Hemisphere.
These are two equal parts. Thus, the equator is the one on Earth
Creates an imaginary circle and is the most important reference point to describe the location of various places on Earth.
All parallel circles from the equator to the poles are called latitude (parallel) lines. Latitudes are measured in degrees. The equatorial circle represents zero degrees latitude.
Since the distance between the poles on both sides of the equator is one-fourth around the earth, it will measure 1/4 to 360 degrees i.e. 90 degrees. Thus 90 degrees North latitude represents the North Pole and 90 degrees Southern Latitude is the South Pole.
In this way, all parallel lines north of the equator are called northern latitudes and all parallel lines south of the equator are called southern latitudes.
Therefore, the value of each latitude is also written along its direction i.e. north or south. Generally, it is expressed with the letter N or S. For example, both Chandrapur in Maharashtra and Belo Horizonte in Brazil (South America) are located at the same latitude at 20 degrees. But Chandrapur is located 20 degrees north of the equator and 20 degrees south of Belo Horizonte.
Therefore we say that Chandrapur is located at 20 ° north latitude and Belo Horizonte at 20 ° south latitude. As we move away from the equator, the latitudes decrease in size.
Critical latitude lines
To understand Latitude and Longitude, we have to read carefully.
In addition to the equator (0 °), north pole (90 ° N), and south pole (90 ° S.), there is four more important latitude (parallel) lines.
- Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere (23 ° N),
- Capricorn line (23 ° S) in the southern hemisphere,
- The north pole circle, 66 ° north of the equator.
- The south pole circle 66 ° south of the equator.
At all latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the Sun is immediately above the head once a year in the afternoon. Hence the region receives the most heat.
And it is called Tropical Zone.
After the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the Sun is not above the midday sun at any latitude. The sun’s rays slant towards the pole. Thus, the Tropic of Cancer and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere and
The temperature in the area between the south pole circle is moderate. Therefore, they are called temperate tropics.
The region between the North Pole and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the South Pole circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere is extremely cold. Because, here, the sun does not come much above the horizon. Hence they are called cold tropics.
What is longitude?
To know the location of a place, apart from the latitude of that place, some more information is also required.
You can see that the island of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean and the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean are located at the same latitude (20 ° 00’S). To know their exact position, it is necessary to find out how far these places are east or west from the reference line connecting the north pole to the south pole.
These reference lines are called longitudinal meridians and the distance between them is measured in degrees of longitude, each fraction.
The minutes are divided into minutes and minutes. They are semicircular and the distance between them decreases as they move towards the poles and become zero at the poles, where all longitudinal meridians meet.
All longitudinal meridians, unlike latitude (parallel) lines, have the same length. So it was difficult to express them only in prime numbers. Then all the countries decided to start counting east and west from post-meridian passing through Greenwich, where the British State Observatory is located. Its value is 0 ° longitude and from here we compute 180 ° east or 180 ° west.
The major meridian and 180 ° meridian divide the earth into two equal parts, the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. Therefore east of longitude of a place
Alphabets for And the letter p for the west. Let’s use it. It would be interesting to know that 180 ° east and 180 ° west are situated on the same line after the meridian.
Now, look at the grid formed by longitude (parallel) lines and longitudinal meridians on the globe.
If you have the right information about the latitude and longitude of a place, then you can easily locate that place on the globe.
For example, in Assam .. Dhubri 26 ° N latitude and 90 ° E Located on longitude. Now, look at the point where these two lines intersect. This point will be the correct position of Dhubri.
To understand this, on paper, evenly spaced horizontally and draw vertical lines. Express the vertical lines with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and the horizontal lines with the letters a, b, c, d, e. Draw some small circles at the points at which these vertical and horizontal lines intersect. Express these small circles with the names A, B, C, D, and E.
Suppose the vertical lines express the east longitudes and the horizontal lines the northern latitudes.
Longitude and time
The best means of measuring time is the movement of the Earth, Moon, and planets. Sunrise and sunset occur every day. It is therefore only natural that it is the best means of scheduling in the whole world.
Local time can be estimated from the reflection made by the sun, which is shortest in the afternoon and longest at sunrise and sunset.
The Sun on the main meridian located at Greenwich, at which time the Sun will be at the highest point of the sky, at that time it will be midday at all places located at the meridian.
Since the Earth rotates from west to east, the places that are east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and those in the west will be behind their time.
The rate of time difference can be calculated by the following method. The Earth rotates 360 ° on its axis in about 24 hours, that is, it rotates 15 ° in 1 hour and 1 ° in 4 minutes.
Thus when it is 12 o’clock in Greenwich, 15 ° east of Greenwich
The time will be 159 = 40 minutes i.e. 1 hour ahead of the time of Greenwich, that is, it will be 1 o’clock in the afternoon.
But the time 15 west of Greenwich will be 1 hour before the time of Greenwich, that is, it will be 11 am. Likewise when it is 12 noon on Greenwich
At that time it will be 180 ° at midnight.
At any place when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, the clock is at 12 o’clock in the afternoon. Thus, the time shown by the clock will be the local time of that location.
Why do we consider standard time?
There is a difference in the local time of the locations on different meridians. For example, the scheduling of trains passing through many longitudes would be difficult.
Local time in Dwarka in Gujarat and Dibrugarh in Assam in India
There will be a difference of 1 hour 45 minutes. Therefore, it is necessary that the local time of the post-meridian passing through the central part of the country is considered the standard time of the country.
The local time of this meridian is considered the standard time of the entire country. 82 ° E (82 ° 30 ‘E) is considered the standard meridian in India.
The local time of this meridian is considered the standard time of the entire country. This is known as Indian Standard Time.
Haris lives in a small town near Bhopal. He tells his friend Alok that they will not be able to sleep tonight.
The cricket match between India and England will start at 2 pm in London. That is, according to the time of India, the match will start at 7:30 in the evening and will end late at night.
Do you know what is the difference between India and England?
East India is 82 ° 30 BC and the time here is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich time. So when it is 2:00 pm in London, it will be 7:30 pm in India.
Some countries have more longitudinal extension, due to which more than one standard time is adopted there. For example, 11 standard times have been adopted in Russia. The Earth is divided into 24 time zones of one hour.
Thus each time the area surrounds the area up to 15 ° longitude. I sincerely hope that you have understood latitude and longitude.
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